Logical Studies in Early Analytic Philosophy / Nino B. Cocchiarella. Columbus : Ohio State University Press, 1987.
Collection of essays dealing with the development of analytic philosophy in the first quarter of the 20th century. There are logical reconstructions and criticisms of articles and writers during the period covered. Some of the essays use symbols and advanced syllogisms. This is an advanced-level work which is not for beginners. The references are located at the back of each essay, and the index is at the back of the book.
Buddhist Logic / F. Th. Stcherbatskoi. 2 volumes. Dover Publications, 1962.
This work is an explanation of the system of logic created in India in the 6th and 7th centuries A.D. by Dignana and Dharmakirti. It contains doctrine and forms of syllogisms. There is also theory on the part of pure sensation, reliability of knowledge, and the reality of the outside world (the equivalent of epistemology in Western thought). There are graphs, tables, and charts. A long introduction functions as a broad background essay on the Buddhist logical system. Some of the theories described include reality and knowledge, the theory of instantaneous being, causation, sense perception, ultimate reality, judgment, inference, syllogism, and logical fallacies. In addition, there are also sections on negative judgment, the law of contradiction, universals, dialectic, and the reality of the external world. There are separate indexes in the back for Sanskrit, European, and Tibetan names. There is also an index of main logical terms which includes definitions.
Introduction to Logic / Irving M. Copi. 6th ed. New York : McMillan, 1982.
Details the methods and principles used by scientists and philosophers to reason properly and correctly. Covers Aristotelian logical systems. Textbook style for introductory-level college classes. Begins with simple terms, brings in advanced syllogisms, symbols, and formulae gradually. Contains exercises and examples, with answers in the back. There is also an index in the back. Topics discussed include fallacies, use of language, definition, categorical propositions, categorical syllogisms, and arguments in ordinary language. Also includes symbolic logic, deduction, quantification theory, relations, analogy & probable inference, casual connections, science & hypothesis, truth & validity, and probability.
Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applications / Tudolf Carnap; translated by William H. Meyer. New York : Dover Publications, Inc., 1958.
Discusses the use of syllogisms and language in logical systems. The book includes a bibliography and an index at the end. The work is relatively advanced--this book is best used by those who have a background in logic and symbolism.