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Systematic Reviews

Quality and Risk of Bias Assessment

In this step, studies that meet your screening critieria (sometimes only 1-3% of initial set) are scored for quality and risk of bias. Usually, two independent screeners are used. 

Extracting data from included studies

Best practice is to use two independent assessors to enter data for individual studies. Often an Excel spreadsheet is used, with one line per study. Software designed for SRs, such as Covidence, has built-in data management.